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    Marine Pollution Bulletin

  • 中文名称: 海洋污染通报
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  • ISSN: 0025-326X
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  • 机译 东亚海洋的海洋污染预防与管理:概念,方法和方法的范式转变
    • 作者:Chua Thia-Eng;
    • 刊名:Marine Pollution Bulletin
    • 1999年第1/12期
    摘要:A brief analysis of the current situation pertaining to marine pollution prevention and management in the east Asian Seas is outlined, particularly focusing on pollution Arising from both land and sea-based sources. This paper Highlights the results of a Regional Programme supported By the Global Environment Facility (GEF) in addressing Some of the key marine pollution management problems of The region.
  • 机译 贻贝文化对南非萨尔达尼亚湾大型底栖动物群落结构的影响
    摘要:The impact of raft mussel-culture in Saldanha Bay, South Africa on macrobenthic community structure (abundance and biomass) was studied. Sampling was conducted in January between 1993 and 1996 to assess: (1) the comptosion of macrobenthos below rafts relative outside the farm; (2) effects of raft position and age within the farm; and (3) recover rate of benthos after raft removal. Analyses included ABC plots, hierarchical clustering and species diversity indices.
  • 机译 富营养化,水生病原体和异种生物化合物:环境风险和挑战
    • 作者:R.S.S. Wu;
    • 刊名:Marine Pollution Bulletin
    • 1999年第1/12期
    摘要:Recent advances in pollution control and monitoring technologies, improved analytical capability, changes in government priorities and results of scientific studies have substantially changed our views and perceptions towards marine pollution in the last two decades. Globally, the problems caused by eutrophication, water borne pathogens and xenobiotic compounds are likely to be exacerbated and pose significant ecological and/or public health risks in the coming years, especially in developing countries.
  • 机译 香港吐露港的富营养化动力学
    摘要:The time and spatial variation of water quality in Tolo Harbour, a eutrophic landlocked semi-enclosed bay fre- Quented by algal blooms, is studied using a dynamic Eutrophication model. Hourly changes of tide levels and Currents are computed by a link-node model assuming M_2 Tidal forcing. Phytoplankton growth is assumed to be Limited by solar radiation, nitrogen and temperature. The Model incorporates light acclimation by algae, self-shad- Ing, photosynthetic production, nutrient uptake, and a Dynamic determination of the carbon to chlorophyll ratio.
  • 机译 利用水生植物生态毒理学方法监测澳大利亚南部沿海排泄物
    摘要:Germination inhibition of zoospores of the aquatic, brown algal macrophyte Ecklonia radiata was employed to as- sess the toxicity of sewage effluents under short to long term exposure and under modified salinity conditions. The rate of germination inhibition was determined for expo- sure times between 2 and 48 h in salinity modified and unmodified regimes and under reduced salinity conditions alone. The results indicated that rate of germination in- hibition increased with duration of exposure to sewage effluents and to salinity reduction alone, and that response to the effluents may be enhanced under conditions of re- duced salinity.
  • 机译 珠江口有机氯污染物的分布与结局
    摘要:Samples of surface sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were collected form the Pearl River estu- ary, China, and the distribution and concentration of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs and polychlori- nated biphenyls (PCBs) were extensively studied. The concentration ranges of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in the sediments were 0.28-1.23 ng g~-1, 1.36-8.99 ng g~-1 and 0.18-1.82 ng g~-1, respectively. The concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in the SPM varied both with the Sampling locations and the season of collection.
  • 机译 俄罗斯和日本海洋哺乳动物中三(4-氯苯基)甲烷和三(4-氯苯基)甲醇的污染:身体分布,生物蓄积和污染状况
    摘要:Four seal species (Phoca caspica, Phoca sibirica, Phoca hispida and Phoca largha) and one whale (Orcinus orca) from Russia and Japan were examined to determine the body ditribution, bioaccumulation and contamination status of tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methanol (TCPMOH). Lipid nor- malized concentrations of TCPMe and TCPMOH were comparable in various organs and tissues, implying that their body distribution is followed to the lipid-dependent accumulation, similar to that for other organochlorines.
  • 机译 海洋哺乳动物中的Butlylitin污染-综述
    • 作者:Shinsuke Tanabe;
    • 刊名:Marine Pollution Bulletin
    • 1999年第1/12期
    摘要:In order to understand organotin accumulation in marine mammals, the present study determined the concentra- tions of butyltins (BTs) in various tissues and organs and described their distribution patterns relative tosex, age and geographical factors. Both cetaceans and pinnipeds showed higher BTs concentrations in the liver amongst various tissues and organs. In addition, noticeably high concentrations were found in the hair of pinnipeds, indi- cating possible exertion of BTs through shedding. BTs composition in mammals and their prey organisms sug- gested that pinnipeds have a stronger capacity to degrade BTs as compared to cetaceans.
  • 机译 生物监测沿海海洋生态系统的健康-微型毒性试验的作用和挑战
    • 作者:Peter G. Wells;
    • 刊名:Marine Pollution Bulletin
    • 1999年第1/12期
    摘要:Coastal marine ecosystems in many parts of the world are under unrelenting stress caused by urban development, hazardous or toxic substances, overfishing, habitat de- struction, the introduction of exotic species and natural toxins. Biomonitoring plays a vital role in governmental and industrial strategies to identify, assess, control and reduce these problems. Sensitive and practical techniques in biomonitoring are needed in all of the strategic ap- proaches-from toxic chemical rating and classification, to pollution source control status and trends monitoring, and assessments of "marine ecosystem health".
  • 机译 墨西哥虾养殖的环境影响和沿海污染
    摘要:The moderated, but continual development of the shrimp aquaculture in Mexico, in conjunction with municipal and agriculture effluents, in the last decade has created the first symptoms of negative environmental impacts, due mainly to the discharge of nutrients and organic matter into adjacent coastal waters. Similarly, the increasing impairment of coastal water quality resulting from the discharge of domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes into coastal waters has affected the aquaculture profitability in certain areas. The cumulative impact of the main anthropogenic sources of nutrients in the Mexican coastal states was estimated in 190 088 ton N yr~(-1) and 51 831 ton P yr~(-1) The input from shrimp aquaculture is only 1.5% and 0.9% of the main sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. This last input, though small, is related to local and adverse effects on coastal ecosystems. The introduction of management measures to mitigate the adverse environmental impacts of shrimp aquaculture development has now become necessary and urgent.
  • 机译 宗教,科学与黑海环境
    • 作者:JOHN S. GRAY;
    • 刊名:Marine Pollution Bulletin
    • 1998年第1期
    摘要:It is not often that a marine biologist gets the opportunity to interact with religious leaders and top economists in discussions on the environment. I was extremely fortunate recently to be invited to take part in a symposium to discuss the Black Sea in Crisis. There were a number of remarkable aspects of this Symposium. Firstly, it took place on board a vessel that cruised around the whole of the Black Sea from Trabzon in Turkey to Batumi in Georgia, Novosirisk in Russia, Yalta in Crimea, Odessa in Ukraine, Constanza in Romania, Varna in Bulgaria, Istanbul and finally Thessaloniki in Greece. Secondly, his All Holiness Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople, leader of the world's orthodox churches, was on board and his arrival at each port was a spectacular occasion.
  • 机译 苏丹红海沿岸环境中的放射性水平
    摘要:Measurements of natural and fallout radionuclides in marine surface sediments, seagrass and algae collected from the Sudanese coastal waters of the Red Sea have been made using high resolution γ-spectrometry, radio-chemical separation and α-spectrometry. Activity levels of uranium isotopes, thorium isotopes, ~(226)Ra, ~(210)Po, ~(40)K and ~(137)Cs were determined in the samples. Comparison of the data on natural radionuclides from coastal marine sediments with those collected from 30 km offshore (Sanganeb atoll) reveals that both anthropogenic and terrestrial influx from the hinterland is negligible. However, values for ~(226)Ra and ~(210)Po are higher in the sediments of Port Sudan harbour relative to those from the adjacent fringing reefs. Uranium content is higher in shallow-water sediments and the authigenic fraction constitutes 12% on the average. The ~(228)Th: ~(232)Th disequilibrium in sediments indicates rapid rate of sedimentation at the sampling sites. The activity levels detected for ~(137)Cs in sediments collected from the Port Sudan harbour area are fairly high as compared with values from other sampling locations. On the basis of individual data, the variations are insignificant with regard to the uptake of natural radionuclides by marine species considered in this study. However, ~(137)Cs activity in algae ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 Bq kg~(-1) with Sargassum (brown algae) showing the highest level.
  • 机译 海洋环境放射性-缺少科学吗?
    摘要:In paying attention to the specific needs of radiological protection and the protection of man and the environment from ionizing radiation, insufficient attention has been paid to the identification of prime processes which control the distributions of radionuclides. A major omission has been a failure to optimize the use of cost effective direct observational data for the in situ distribution of radionuclides in sediments by autoradiographic techniques. Here I consider the distribution of alpha particle radioactivity, together with some actinides in marine/ estuarine sediments of the Cumbrian coast, England. Today, the alpha particle radioactivity from Pu, Am and Cm, originating from authorized low level discharges of effluents into the NE Irish Sea from the British Nuclear Fuels plc plant at Sellafield, is associated with three main phases: BNFL hot particles, the minerals haematite and magnetite and hydrated iron oxide flecks which are associated with quartz grains. The receiving environment contains large quantities of industrial iron together with other elements, from haematite mining, blast furnace production of iron, coal mining and phosphogypsum wastes. These wastes have interacted with the radionuclides, but as the industrial activities have now ceased, future distributions of alpha emitters are likely to be different and existing transport-dispersion models may not be suitable. Preliminary evidence indicates that the rate of loss of stable and radioactive elements from coastal waters may have increased. This applies to most of the UK coastal waters. In order to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in marine and estuarine systems, site specific characteristics must be recognized. The use of global values and vague operational concepts in order to account for radionuclide distributions has limited scientific meaning.
  • 机译 从中国厦门沿海水域采集的Balanus amphitrite和Tetraclita squamosa(甲壳纲:Cirripedia)中的重金属
    摘要:Samples of the barnacles Balanus amphitrite and Tetraclita squamosa were collected from the coastal waters of Xiamen, Fujian Province, China, during May 1996. Barnacles were analysed for cadmium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrophotometry. Comparative statistical analyses have allowed intraspecific comparisons of metal levels. One site in particular, Effluent Outfall, showed elevated levels of copper (2204 μg g~(-1)) and zinc (10 000 μg g~(-1)). Results from the present study have been compared with those obtained from Xiamen in 1991 and from Hong Kong's coastal waters between 1986 and 1996. Lower cadmium levels were measured in the present study as compared to 1991 whereas copper and zinc levels were similar between 1991 and 1996, except at the Effluent Outfall site where great increases in bioavail-ability were recorded. Accumulated body burdens of all metals were similar to those measured from Victoria Harbour in the 1980s and Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong, in the 1990s.
  • 机译 北欧部分沿海湿地的重金属年代学
    摘要:Sediment cores were collected from five coastal wetlands in England, the Netherlands, and Poland, and samples analysed for heavy metal concentrations. Depth profiles of metal concentrations were converted to time-based profiles, using vertical accretion rates obtained from ~(137)Cs dating. Chronologies of metal concentrations from the two cores (high and low marsh) at each site showed good agreement, indicating that sediment profiles represent historical inputs of metals. Sediment metal concentrations showed that some of the areas are highly polluted, with peak sediment concentrations up to five times greater than in the oldest sediment samples (1890s to 1900s). Chronologies indicated different pollution histories for the five areas. Local hydrology appeared to be important in affecting metal accumulation. Metal concentrations have recently decreased in the cores from St. Annaland Marsh (the Netherlands) and Stiffkey Marsh (UK). Levels of metals from the Oder River remained high throughout the upper part of the cores.
  • 机译 新生圣劳伦斯白鲸(Delphinaptevus leucas)的组织中的环境污染物
    摘要:Tissue samples of brain, kidney, liver, and blubber from a neonate St Lawrence beluga whale were analyzed for ortho and non-ortho polychlorinated (PCB) congeners, organochlorine (OC) compounds, polychlorinated di-benzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and total mercury. As γ-globulins, which indicate presence of colostrum, were not found in serum of the live neonate, it was unlikely that there had been lactational transfer of environmental contaminants to the neonate. No PCDFs were detected. Of the PCDD congeners, only OCDD was found in all tissues; ranging from 12 pg g~(-1) lipid in brain to 1138 pg g~(-1) in liver. Concentrations of ΣPCB (sum of 25 ortho and 4 non-ortho PCBs) and ΣDDT were lowest in brain (1.7 and 0.7 μg g~(-1) lipid, respectively), intermediate in kidney (4.1 and 2.3 μg g~(-1)) and highest in liver (8.8 and 3.5 μg g~(-1)) and blubber (17.6 and 2.2 μg g~(1)). PCB 126 was the predominant non-ortho congener. Toxic equivalent 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations (TEQs) (pg g~(-1) lipid) were: mono-ortho PCBs > non-ortho PCBs > PCDDs. Major individual OC compounds were DDE, HCB, oxychlordane and cis-nonachlor. Similar PCB and OC patterns were found for different tissues, with the exception of α-HCH in brain. Total mercury was detected in liver, kidney and brain at concentrations of 49-145 ng g~(-1) (wet weight). Concentrations of PCBs, OCs, and mercury in the neonate were lower than or in the lower range of those found in published data on female adult beluga whales of the St Lawrence, and this is probably due to absence of lactational transfer of contaminants in the neonate. Proportions of lower chlorinated PCBs, HCB, and HCH compounds were greater in the neonate than in these female whales, which may indicate preferen- tial gestational transfer of these compounds.
  • 机译 下加利福尼亚州(墨西哥)-加利福尼亚州(美国)边境地区海洋沉积物中的氯化烃
    摘要:Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorinated pesticides are widespread on land and in aquatic environments. This is a result of their wide use during the last two decades in industry, agriculture and even health campaigns that use them to counteract diseases such as malaria. Their physicochemical properties make them very resistant to biological degradation and, thus, highly persistent (Fowler, 1990; Wesen et al, 1992; Iwate et al, 1994).
  • 机译 加拿大东部拜埃德沙勒尔斯Anse a Beaufils疏Dr材料处置场的大型底栖无脊椎动物群落的组成和丰度的时间变化
    摘要:Temporal changes in the composition and abundance of the macro-benthic invertebrate communities were studied at dredged sediment disposal sites located near L'Anse-à-Beaufils, baie des Chaleurs, Quebec, Canada, in July and September 1994. A total of 5109 m~3, 2485 m~3 and 6002 m~3 of dredged material from L'Anse-a-Beaufils harbour were dumped within the study area in 1992, 1993 and 1994, respectively. Pre-disposal collection of samples was conducted from 4 to 13 July 1994 at five stations located within the targeted dumpsite of 1994 as well as at five nearby control stations. Post-disposal sample collection was carried out from 5 to 16 September 1994, 15 days after the 1994 disposal activities ceased, at five stations in each of the 1994, 1993 and 1992 dumping areas (15 stations total) as well as at five stations in the control zone. The impact was estimated at the community level of the system, using both descriptive statistics, and multivariate analytical methods. The surface sediment composition and the benthic community structure were changed drastically shortly after the open-sea deposition of dredged materials. The faunal response may be characterized as a decrease in the density of the less opportunistic families and a major increase in the density of families with the most opportunistic life-style. Both direct burial by dredged sediment discharged in large quantities within a short time interval and an enhanced food supply are the two factors that may explain the changes in density in various families. More than 2 years are required for the disturbed areas to re-establish a sediment composition and a macro-benthic community structure similar to undisturbed areas of the Anse a Beaufils sea bottom.
  • 机译 汞污染和塞马环斑海豹(Phoca hispida saimensis)
    摘要:Mercury concentrations in the hair and various tissues of the Saimaa ringed seal were monitored from 1980 to 1995. In the liver, muscle and kidney of weaned pups mercury concentrations dropped in the middle of the 1980s. In the natal hair and liver of young pups, however, no clear decrease was seen. In the natal hair and main fish prey species of the seals mercury concentration were highest in areas of humic water. Mercury concentration in the liver of adults has not changed significantly since 1981. Age of the seal is clearly correlated with mercury concentration in the liver. Shortage of selenium is assumed to be one reason for high concentrations of mercury in muscle. The mercury concentration in hair decreased markedly in an adult seal in captivity, after giving selenium. Based on these findings, one reason for the decrease in population density of the Saimaa seal in this century may have been mercury pollution.
  • 机译 在伊利亚纳萨河过时的Imposex在特拉华河口仍然很常见
    摘要:Populations of Ilyanassa obsoleta (Gastropoda) in Delaware estuaries were assessed for imposex. This phenomenon involves the abnormal imposition of male features on females and is associated with marinas and TBT (tributyltin) pollution from antifouling paints. Imposex was assessed in the northern section of the Lewes and Rehoboth Canal in a 1983-84 study. In summer 1995, snails were taken from this section, the south Canal, and Rehoboth Bay. In the Canal, imposex was least frequent (52% of females) at the north terminus, reached a peak in Lewes Harbor (94%), and was 78-90% to the south. At the Rehoboth Bay site it was 23%. Imposex frequency has not changed in the northern section since 1983-84. However, the intensity of imposex expression has declined. No female had a full-size penis in this study, while previously many did. Intense boating activity is confined to the Canal's northern section. Frequent imposex in the south Canal suggests that, over the years, TBT pollution has spread south.
  • 机译 河口混合过程中金属物种Cu,Cd,Mn和Fe的行为和形态
    摘要:This paper, based on laboratory experiments, deals with the behaviour of metallic species Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Mn during the mixing of river and seawaters. The present study focused on the variations of metals speciation in both the dissolved phase and the suspended particulate matter. For the dissolved metals, a protocol using chelating resins permitted to perform trace metals speciation, i.e. fractionation into 'organic-metal' and 'inorganic-metal', and to preconcentrate them. The speciation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was performed according to the sequential extraction procedure of Tessier et al., 1979, to partition particulate metals into five different fractions. All total metals had a conservative behaviour. However, there were great differences from one metal to another in the partitioning into dissolved and particulate phase. For iron, the metal was partly removed from the dissolved phase during the mixing, probably because of organic matter flocculation. Particulate iron was conservative because 90% of it remained in the 'residual' fraction of SPM. Copper had a conservative behaviour in both the dissolved and the particulate phases. The affinity for organic matter was well established for dissolved copper as well as for particulate copper, i.e. respectively 40% in 'organic' form and more than 60% in the 'organic' fraction. Manganese and cadmium were non-conservative: a clear enrichment of the dissolved phase was observed at low salinities ( < 7.5). These metals were desorbed in inorganic form from the particulate phase and for a large part from the 'carbonates' fraction of the SPM.
  • 机译 海洋污染—另类观点
    摘要:In his editorial, 'Marine Pollution' (Marine Pollution Bulletin 34, 592-594, 1997), Jack Pearce reviews some recent work on contaminants — materials that are mobilized to the marine environment by society but which do not demonstrably impact upon resources. Pollutants, which are defined as those substances that have measurable effects upon the health of both human and marine life, pose far greater challenges to the environmental community for understanding and to the political community for action. The establishment of cause-effect relationships between the pollutant and the targeted organism can be a difficult charge. Still placing such an emphasis upon marine contaminants does a disservice to those who seek a healthier ocean environment when funds and people are inadequate for pollution investigations.
  • 机译 加州海狮(Zalophus californianus)种群和ΣDDT污染
    摘要:We believe that possible conclusions implied from recent findings regarding contamination of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with ΣDDT require re-examination. A recent Marine Pollution Bulletin news item ('California Sea Lions Recover From DDT') stated that sea lion populations in coastal southern California currently show much lower concentrations of DDE and DDT in blubber than in 1970, when 'nearly half the sea lion pups ... were dying prematurely' (Anon., 1996, p. 6). This article also states that the waste from discharges of one former DDT manufacturer in the Los Angeles area between 1949 and 1970 'was sufficient to have an effect on an entire animal population'.
  • 机译 污染对香港Li的生长,繁殖和人口结构的影响
    摘要:The impacts of pollution on the growth, reproduction and population structure of two Hong Kong limpets, Patelloida saccharina and Patelloida pygmaea, have been investigated. Specimens were collected from four study sites; Stonecutters Island in Victoria Harbour (heavily polluted) and three other sites experiencing lesser levels of contamination; Discovery Bay, Repulse Bay and Cape d'Aguilar (clean) and which together form a transect set from the more polluted, estuarine, northwest to the less polluted, oceanic, south-east in Hong Kong waters. At Stonecutters Island, P. saccharina and P. pygmaea showed significantly higher gonosomatic index (GSI) values, a shorter recruitment period, lower density but a significantly larger individual size in comparison with individuals from the other relatively cleaner sites. This can be explained as a phenotypic adaptation, in terms of the two species' life history tactics and sexual strategies, to a polluted environment, facilitating individual survival and reproduction.
  • 机译 南加州索尔顿海藤壶中重金属积累的初步研究
    摘要:Accumulations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Hg and Pb in body tissues and egg masses of Balanus amphitrite were measured with an inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Barnacles proved to be a good choice as a sentinel species for monitoring of heavy metals. A comparison of their levels in the animals inhabiting the Salton Sea with those from coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean showed that the sea, contrary to expectations, has not been severely contaminated by heavy metals. The accumulations of the metals in barnacle bodies and eggs varied markedly between the stations but appeared least where organic pollution was highest.
  • 机译 评估风对阿拉斯加圣保罗岛上涂油海鸟的影响的漂移实验
    摘要:We used wooden blocks to estimate the proportion of oiled seabird carcasses that were likely to be recovered on beaches of St Paul Island, Alaska following a near-shore oil spill. We released a total of 302 blocks 6 km north of the island in 1997 at the site of a 17 Ⅱ 1996 oil spill. We used a paired design and released half the blocks when the winds were onshore and released the second half when the winds were offshore. We systematically searched beaches after the second release to recover blocks. We recovered 93 of 152 (61%) blocks released when winds were onshore but only 1 of 150 (0.7%) blocks released when winds were offshore. Given that winds following the 1996 spill were offshore, we conclude that most birds killed at sea following the 1996 spill were likely not recovered on beaches.
  • 机译 1982-1996年,北大西洋西部和加勒比海的浮动焦油
    • 作者:PAUL JOYCE;
    • 刊名:Marine Pollution Bulletin
    • 1998年第2期
    摘要:This study presents data on the long-term and wide areal distribution of macroscopic floating tar in the western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea. These data show that the distribution of tar is primarily controlled by large-scale surface circulation patterns and that tar density has decreased during recent years.
  • 机译 Imposex和正常Ilyanassa bbsoleta中的睾丸激素代谢:田间和TBTA Cl诱导的Imposex的比较
    摘要:Tributyltin (TBT) is a marine biocide that alters activity of cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenases and elicits androgenization in gastropod molluscs. This study was conducted to determine whether testosterone metabolism was altered in field collected and TBT-induced imposex female mud snail, I. obsoleta. Normal and imposex snails were collected from two field sites. Imposex was induced by exposing normal snails to 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, or 200 ng TBT l~(-1) seawater for 45 days at 19℃. Testosterone metabolism was studied by exposing snails to [~(14)C]-testosterone for 24 h and determining conversion by phase Ⅰ (P450s and reductases) and phase Ⅱ (transferases) enzymes. All snails took up similar levels of testosterone from seawater, and radioactivity partitioned primarily into gonad/digestive gland complex. Testosterone was metabolized primarily by reductases. Field collected imposex snails had decreased rates of reduced metabolites, while there was no overall change in testosterone metabolism in TBT-induced imposex snails. These findings indicate that field-collected imposex snails metabolize testosterone differently from normal snails, as well as from TBT-induced imposex snails.
  • 机译 垃圾邮件中金属硫蛋白-cDNA的分子特征用于检测以色列地中海沿岸的重金属污染
    摘要:Members of the fish family Sparidae are abundant in various continental shelf habitats along the Mediterranean, including relatively clean and polluted areas. The levels of metallothionein (MT)-mRNA in their liver is suggested here as a bioindicator parameter for the detection of heavy metals in Mediterranean marine habitats. A complete MT-cDNA was cloned from the liver of metal-induced Sparus aurata and used to evaluate the MT-mRNA levels in the livers of the abundant coastal sparid species, Lithognathus mormyrus, both after laboratory induction by cadmium and in fish sampled along a pollution gradient at Haifa Bay, the Mediterranean coast of Israel. It is concluded that the MT-mRNA in L. mormyrus liver is a good bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment, because of the following: it is heavy metal-inducible; its level is turned off rather rapidly after the elimination of the inducing agents; and it is shown to be correlated to a heavy metal pollution gradient in a natural marine habitat.
  • 机译 1997年国际海洋生物技术会议(IMBC '97)
    • 作者:JACK PEARCE;
    • 刊名:Marine Pollution Bulletin
    • 1998年第2期
    摘要:The IMBC '97, the fourth International Marine Biotechnology Conference, was held in Sorrento and several other southern Italy venues, 22-29 September 1997. Organized under the aegis of the European Union, and by the Stazione Zoological 'Anton Dohrn', Naples, the Conference brought together some 425 scientists from 40 countries using 330 contributed papers to understand better the current status and future trends of the following topics: aquaculture; bioremediation and ecotoxicity; antifouling processes; fisheries and population genetics; marine biomoleculcs and enzymes; biodiversity, environmental adaptation, and evolution; molecular biology and transgenic animals; developmental biology; and gene regulation and biological models.
  • 机译 埃克森·瓦尔迪兹溢油事故发生16个月后,阿拉斯加威廉王子湾深水底栖生物
    摘要:In 1990, 16 months after the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, an assessment of the benthic macrofauna and associated environmental parameters at 40 and 100 m was made. Assessment of the biota and environmental data demonstrated patterns in deep benthic assemblages, reflective of oceanographic conditions, as indicated by sediment differences, rather than EVOS toxicity. Comparison of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and δ~(13)C values in sediments between stations within the oil trajectory and reference stations outside of the trajectory showed no significant differences. This investigation uncovered no signals of disturbance 16 months after the EVOS. These results agree with conclusions of studies of intertidal and shallow subtidal regions following the EVOS that demonstrated disturbance effects decreasing with depth.
  • 机译 比较标准:污水污泥的土地利用和疏Material材料的海洋处置
    摘要:That societal perceptions differ between use of the land and the ocean is exemplified by environmental regulations in the United States that allow much higher levels of chemical contamination in sewage sludge to be used on land than in dredged material to be dumped at sea. Criteria for sewage sludge acceptability for land application are bulk chemical concentrations. Criteria for acceptability of dredged material for disposal at sea focus upon biological testing for toxicity and bioaccumu-lation. The result is that sludge applied to land can have much higher levels of contamination than are commonly found even in sediments deemed unacceptable for disposal-at-sea. The inconsistencies between these criteria suggest re-evaluations of both. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
  • 机译 物种与栖息地的保护—海洋科学家的困境
    摘要:Conservation of the marine environment has been increasingly recognized as important during the past 15 years and, indeed, it becomes critical if the generally adopted definition of biodiversity is extended to include phylogenetic diversity. For example, while 15 phyla such as Echinodermata are exclusively marine, most species diversity on land is the result of the radiation of the Arthropoda. Thus, with many more basic body plans represented in the marine environment compared with the terrestrial, conservation of the marine system becomes especially important. The desirability of protecting the marine environment requires no further debate, as shown by national, international and global fora. Instead, the debate now centres on which approach(es) should be adopted to protect as much as possible with limited resources for monitoring the systems.
  • 机译 印度西部特立尼达的污水和制糖厂废水对浅滩沉积物中的磷的影响
    摘要:Total, inorganic and organic phosphorus in sediments of the Oropouche Bank, Trinidad were measured over a period of 18 months from October 1989 to March 1991. The values for inorganic phosphorus ranged from 0.006 mg g~(-1) to 1.164 mg g~(-1) while organic phosphorus ranged from 0.006 mg g~(-1) to 0.642 mg g~(-1). The relatively high values suggest that the bank may represent a storehouse of potential dissolved phosphate to the water column. Month-to-month variations are greater for inshore areas. The extent of the month-to-month variation may be an indication that the inshore areas serve only as a temporary sink for inorganic phosphorus. The most likely sources appear to be domestic and industrial wastes.
  • 机译 渔业与污染的相互作用:探索经济损害的性质和发生率的一种建模方法
    摘要:This paper develops a simple bioeconomic model of fishery-pollution interaction in order to examine the effects of toxic discharges on a hypothetical commercial fishery. The consequences of acute and chronic pollution scenarios are considered, and the model is used to generate results in respect of fish stock biomass, profitability and catch. Economic damage to the natural resource is measured as the lost in situ value of the commercial harvest, and it is shown that the magnitude of these damages depends on the speed at which fishing effort responds to the reduction on biological productivity that the pollution incidents cause.
  • 机译 脂肪和瘦鱼肌肉中多氯联苯和脂质的Bligh和Dyer和Soxhlet提取物之间的差异:对数据评估的意义
    摘要:Both Bligh and Dyer extraction using chloroform/ methanol and Soxhlet extraction using hexane/acetone were employed for extracting total lipid and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from muscle tissue in four species of fish: herring (Clupea harengus), salmon (Salmo salar), cod (Gadus morhua) and Northern pike (Esox lucius), all caught in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. The Bligh and Dyer method allowed a greater amount of total lipid but a lesser amount of total PCBs to be extracted than the Soxhlet method with hexane/acetone did. For all the fish except cod, the sample wet weight PCB concentrations differed significantly for the two extraction methods. When the sample PCB was normalized to extracted total lipid, the differences in the yield of the two methods increased due to differences in total lipid yield. This was most pronounced for the lean fish (cod and pike). When the two methods were compared in terms of efficiency in the extraction of different PCBs, a relationship of this to PCB congener lipophilicity, expressed in terms of K_(ow), could be shown. Differences between methods and variability within the data provided from the first method were highest for the PCB congeners in the lipophilicity regions of log K_(ow) < 6.5 and > 7.5. The study indicated that comparability is better for PCB analysis data from triacylglycerol-rich samples (herring and salmon) than from lean samples (cod and pike). The results suggest that in order to avoid comparisons of data from different samples being misleading, PCB pattern and/or single congener data should be obtained using the same extraction technique.
  • 机译 博特尼亚湾鱼类中有机氯和重金属的比较和时空变化趋势
    摘要:During recent years, many factories in the Baltic Sea catchment have reduced their waste loading. However, because the Baltic Sea is shallow and drains large areas, deposition from airborne transport is important in defining the pollutant load to the Baltic Sea. According to Wulff and Rahm (1993), about one half of the extractable chlorinated organic matter load in the Baltic Sea enters via atmospheric deposition. One consequence of this is the high toxaphene concentration observed in salmon (Salmo salar, Vuorinen et al., 1993) and sea trout (S. trutta trutta, Vuorinen et al., 1994), although this compound is not used in the countries surrounding the Baltic.
  • 机译 Eelgrass(Zostera marina L.)在阿拉斯加威廉王子湾(Prince William Sound):埃克森·瓦尔迪兹溢油的影响
    摘要:Possible injury to, and recovery of, populations of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., in Prince William Sound were assessed following the Exxon Valdez oil spill by comparing populations at oiled vs reference sites between 1990 and 1995. Eelgrass beds in heavily oiled bays were exposed to moderate concentrations of hydrocarbons. In 1990, a year after the spill, concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons averaged nearly 4000 ng g~(-1) dry weight of sediment at oiled sites compared to less than 700 ng g~(-1) at reference sites. Injuries to eelgrass, if any, appeared to be slight and did not persist for more than a year after the spill. There were possible effects on the average density of shoots and flowering shoots, as these were 24 and 62% lower at oiled than at reference sites in 1990 (p < 0.10 for both). However, there were no differences between oiled and reference sites with respect to eelgrass biomass, seed density, seed germination or the incidence of normal mitosis in seedlings, and there were no signs of the elimination of eelgrass beds. Populations recovered from possible injuries by 1991, as there was a sharp decline in hydrocarbon concentrations and there were no differences in shoot or flowering shoot densities between oiled and reference sites in 1990 or subsequent years.
  • 机译 Sandhopper Talitrus盐筒作为波兰格但斯克湾中的痕量金属生物监测仪
    摘要:There are significant differences between the accumulated trace metal concentrations (Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ag, Ni, Fe, Mn) of the talitrid amphipod crustacean Talitrus saltator collected from the strandline of sites around the Gulf of Gdansk, Southern Baltic in July 1996, after allowance for size effects by analysis of covariance. These have resulted from significant geographical differences in the local bioavailabilities of trace metals, which are variably dependent on outflows from the River Vistula (Zn, Cd, Fe, Mn) or from local sources around the Gulf (Cu, Pb). The use of an easily collected littoral organism has established a baseline measure of local trace metal pollution against which future changes can be compared.
  • 机译 英格兰和威尔士沿海水域的海豚(Phocoena phocoena)和灰海豹(Halichoerus grypus)肝组织中的有机锡化合物
    摘要:Common (harbour) porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are small cetaceans which are widely distributed throughout the temperate and sub-Arctic waters in the Northern Hemisphere. They are essentially coastal animals, generally bottom-feeding on small schooling fish such as herring or anchovy, although they are also sighted offshore in deep-water areas (Martin, 1990; Northridge et al., 1995). They are under threat in a number of areas around the North Atlantic as a result of the scale of incidental capture in fishing gear (Clausen and Andersen, 1988; Hammond et al., 1995; International Whaling Commission, 1996; NMFS, 1992; Read and Gaskin, 1990; Trippel et al., 1996). Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) populations occur in the Baltic Sea and the NE and NW Atlantic Ocean, with the greater part of the NE Atlantic population being found around the British Isles (Bonner, 1989).
  • 机译 通过影响研究开发有效的大型动物监测指标-挖泥机实例
    摘要:Data from an initial impact study were used to develop a labour-efficient index for biological monitoring of dredge spoil disposal. Each of 12 indicator species was assigned a score, based primarily on the ratio of its abundance in control vs impacted samples. The 'Index' value was the average score of those indicator species present in the sample. The Index was tested during a second survey. Sample processing for Index calculation took only 25% of the time required to process all macrofauna. The Index value provided a sensible, semi-quantitative indication of impact on benthic macrofauna. Index values of < 2, 2-6 and > 6 were indicative of 'severe', 'patchy' and 'no' impact respectively. Mean Index value correlated with mean macro-faunal richness (r = 0.93, P < 0.05) and abundance (r = 0.92, P < 0.05). While the Index is site- and impact-specific, the process of developing efficient monitoring tools from an initial impact study should be widely applicable.
  • 机译 英国国家海洋分析质量控制计划:水中测定水中有机氯的性能评估,1992-1996年
    摘要:A scheme addressing analytical quality in marine chemistry has been established within the UK. The National Marine Analytical Quality Control (NMAQC) scheme is primarily intended to underpin the co-ordinated National Monitoring Programme established in 1993/1994. In this paper we review the progress of the scheme during its first 4 years of operation with respect to the determination of concentrations of organochlorine compounds in aqueous samples, and relate performance in the exercises undertaken to date with the requirements of the NMP. The further development of the NMAQC scheme in respect of these determinands is also discussed.
  • 机译 地中海西北部的微量金属回收成分
    摘要:Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were measured in a north-western Mediterranean area in three different reservoirs (atmosphere, marine surface microlayer and subsurface seawater) with the aim of comparing their respective metal contents. Although the surface micro-layer is strongly enriched in trace metals, enrichment factors normalized to sodium indicate that the recycling component (i.e. sea-salt particles emitted by the sea surface and re-introduced into the atmosphere) are negligible compared with direct atmospheric loadings, which are very high in the north-western Mediterranean. The importance of the recycling component decreases in the sequence Cd > Pb > Cu > Zn.
  • 机译 萨尔瓦多Acajutla的牡蛎和沉积物监测
    摘要:Oysters (Ostrea irridescens) and fine-grained sediments from Acajutla, £1 Salvador were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated organic compounds, pesticides and trace elements. Most oysters contained only background levels of PAHs, with the exception of those collected very close to an industrial discharge canal which were up to 100 times background levels. Only black mud accumulating in the main harbour contained PAHs at levels of environmental concern. Pesticides in oysters and fine-grained sediments were below the detection levels in most samples. PCBs were also low. Trace elements in sediments and oysters varied widely, reflecting differences in loadings and degree of bioavailability. Zinc and copper in oysters were elevated to levels normally considered representative of moderately polluted sites, whereas arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel were not elevated at most sites. These results were generally associated with potential sources of contamination identified through a questionnaire on product storage, handling and waste disposal from facilities operating in the area.
  • 机译 海底尾矿处理对幼年黄鳍So(Pleuronectes asper)的影响:室内研究
    摘要:Behaviour, survival, and growth studies were conducted in the laboratory on juvenile yellowfin sole (Pleuronectes asper) exposed to mine tailings produced by a pilot plant for a gold mine near Juneau, Alaska. Fish avoided fresh tailings in favour of natural marine sediment (control) and weathered tailings (75 years old). Only when fresh tailings were covered with 2 cm of control sediment did fish prefer control and fresh tailings equally. Survival of fish was similar (p = 0.66) for fish held on all test sediments. Fish held on fresh tailings for 60 d grew significantly (p = 0.013) less than control fish during the first, but not the second, month. Avoidance or short-term reductions in flatfish growth may occur from submarine disposal of tailings. Rapid burial of tailings in areas with high natural sedimentation (e.g., large river mouths) may accelerate recovery of the sea floor.
  • 机译 嵌套的黄脚海鸥(Larus cachinnans Pallas)对Cies群岛(西班牙西北加利西亚)土壤中重金属含量的影响
    摘要:Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn levels were determined in faeces of the yellow-legged gull Larus cachinnans in Galicia (NW Spain), and in soils from three breeding and one reference site. The levels of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb in the soil were significantly higher at the site with highest gull density and with the longest history of use as a breeding site (Percha) than at the reference site. Zn levels were higher than levels of the other metals in all soil and faeces samples. Mean levels of metals in faeces were 305 mg kg~(-1) (Zn), 60 mg kg~(-1) (Cu), 40 mg kg~(-1) (Pb), 9.8 mg kg~(-1) (Cr) and 5.8 mg kg~(-1) (Cd).
  • 机译 基于数值模型轨迹的穆鲁罗亚和其他波利尼西亚群岛之间的污染物途径
    摘要:We address the question of which Polynesian islands would be most vulnerable to exposure from radio-nuclide material as a result of past nuclear testing at Mururoa and Fangataufa, should some of the material now stored in the atolls find its way into the ocean. We use an ocean circulation model of the Polynesian region with 26.5 km resolution and four open boundaries to find advective pathways from Mururoa to other islands. The model is driven by monthly mean wind stress and by the large-scale circulation determined from the wind stress curl at the northern and southern boundaries. Surface trajectories vary strongly with the seasons but always indicate southward or south-westward movement. Trajectories at 50 m and 100 m follow the South Equatorial Current westward. According to the model, no islands in the main island groups north of the latitude of Mururoa (22°S) are on a direct (advective) pathway with Mururoa or Fangataufa at any time. The islands most in danger of exposure to material from the two nuclear test sites are those in the Austral Group.
  • 机译 变化的时代
    • 作者:BRIAN MORTON;
    • 刊名:Marine Pollution Bulletin
    • 1998年第4期
    摘要:On 1 July 1997, Hong Kong's sovereignty passed from Great Britain to China. And the question I was asked, ten thousand times, before the handover: 'What do you think will happen after it?' can be answered: 'Superficially, at least, nothing!' The Chinese government seems to be sticking to its promise of 'one country, two systems' and with Hong Kong retaining a high degree of autonomy and being governed by local people (albeit, regrettably, no longer elected by universal suffrage). In fact, I and other expatriates sense a change in terms of a more friendly local attitude towards us, perhaps because, unlike many others, we have elected to stay, perhaps because of a local sense of national pride in their return to China and because Hong Kong people are now more in charge of their own future.
  • 机译 托雷斯海峡和巴布亚湾中的溶解金属浓度
    摘要:Dissolved copper, cadmium and nickel concentrations were accurately measured in surface water samples from the Torres Strait and the Gulf of Papua. The data indicated that there are significant inputs of dissolved metals to the region from the river systems that drain the mineralized areas of Papua New Guinea. The Purari River was identified as a major source of cadmium and nickel whereas the Fly River, which receives inputs from a large copper mine, was a major source of dissolved copper. Offshore, the concentrations of trace metals are close to background concentrations and were consistent with recent data for Australian coastal waters and the Pacific Ocean.
  • 机译 提交给海洋污染通报的手稿中的样式:1:主题
    摘要:There is a sizeable field of research into trends in science based on published papers and citations. Almost unheard of, in contrast, are similar analyses of all manuscripts submitted to a journal, including rejected ones. Rejected papers reflect on-going work around the world as much as published papers do, and can be equally or even more revealing. Although many may be inherently weak, many contain sound science of local interest and be unsuitable for an international journal for several reasons. In a journal such as this where more papers are rejected than are published, analysis of all submitted manuscripts, not only accepted ones, may better reflect work being done than would an analysis of published papers alone.
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