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  • 期刊名称:

    Marine Environmental Research

  • 中文名称: 海洋环境研究
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  • ISSN: 0141-1136
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  • 机译 从海鸟组织中的汞浓度推断出葡萄牙大西洋中的汞污染的当代模式
    摘要:Mercury concentrations in 1809 egg and plumage samples of adults and chicks of seabirds from colonies in the Portuguese Atlantic (30-40 N, 8-32 W) were determined. Species and tissues were selected to ensure varied levels of ecological (epipelagic vs mesopelagic), spatial (coastal vs pelagic) and temporal (short-to medium-term) integration of mercury contamination. There was an overall general agreement in the information provided by species and types of tissues employed. Results show a four-fold increase in mercury bioaccumulation from the epipelagic to the mesopelagic compartment. Fourteen out of 20 inter-location comparisons of mercury concentrations in tissues yield statistically significant differences. However, 11 differences did not rise above the intra-specific variability of the monitor species and were not considered to reflect genuine geographic variation in mercury contamination. The remaining three differences indicate shightly enhanced mercury contamination in the epipelagic food web adjacent to the southwest Portuguese coast, which deserves further elucidation. Seabird indications of mercury contamination in the study region were assembled with similar information in a brief meta-analysis for the North Atlantic and adjoining regions.
  • 机译 地中海和大西洋水域海龟中有机氯污染物的浓度和模式
    摘要:Concentrations of individual chlorobiphenyls (CBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in marine turtle tissues collected from the Mediterranean (Cyprus, Greece) and European Atlantic waters (Scotland) between 1994 and 1996 are described. 睠B concentrations were highest in adipose tissue and ranged from 775 to 893, 39 to 261 and 47 to 1 78 μpg/kg wet wt in loggerhead (Caretta carretta), green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles, respectively. Omnivorous loggerhead turtles had the highest organochlorine contaminant (OC) concentrations in all tissues sampled. It is thought that dietary preferences were likely to be the main differentiating factor among species. Decreasing lipid contaminant burdens with turtle size were observed in green turtles, most likely attributable to a change in diet with age. Principal component analysis of data from loggerhead and green turtles indi- cated that there were also pattern differences between species, confirming bioaccumulation differences. Crown copyright.
  • 机译 亚致死性暴露于三丁基氧化锡后,东部牡蛎(Crassostrea virginica)对原生动物病原体(Perkinsus marinus)的抵抗力降低
    摘要:Anthropogenic environmental stress is a likely contnbutor to outbreaks of disease due to immunosuppression or increased host vulnerability. Estuarine organisms are exposed to variable concentrations of marine antifouling agents, such as tributyltin (TBT), with higher exposures existing near ports and marinas. Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica), inhabiting the northern Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic coast of North America, are susceptible to a protozoan pathogen, Perkinsus marinus, which has devastated oyster populations and depleted oyster fisheries throughout its range. This study examined the effects of exposure to environmental levels of TBT on susceptibility and survival of oysters when subsequently challenged with P. marinus. Oysters were exposed to TBT (0, 30 and 80 ng/L) in flow-through aquaria for 9 weeks, then moved to static aquaria, where they were challenged with parasites and monitored for an additional 8 weeks for mortality and disease. Results indicated increased infection intensity and oyster mortality in the TBT-exposed treatments relative to unexposed controls. It is hypothesized that TBT exacerbates the infectious disease process and that exposed oysters succumb at lower levels of infection.
  • 机译 Imposex来自苏格兰西海岸的海螺Buccinum undatum和Neptunea antiqua
    摘要:Whelks, Buccinum undatum and Neptunea antiqua, collected from three sites on the west coast of Scotland during 1997 showed varying degrees of imposex. Both the incidence of imposex and the degree of imposex development in individuals was greater in N. antiqua than in B. undatum. The results probably reflect long-term contamination of sediments with tribu- tyltin (TBT) originating from inputs prior to its prohibition for use as an antifoulant on small boats and salmon nets in 1987, but indicate the potential for use of these deeper water whelks as bioindicators of continuing TBT pollution. The levels of imposex found were not such as to affect the fishery potential of the species in Scottish west coast waters.
  • 机译 藻类生物测定笼式培养浊度法对废水毒性评估的评估
    摘要:The effectiveness of a computer-controlled cage-culture turbidostat (CCT) as an algal test was evaluated in comparison with three widely used aquatic toxicity test methods for the toxicity assessment of industrial effluents. Effluent samples were collected from two major industrial outfalls discharging to the Firth of Clyde, Scotland: Site A (Effluents I and 2) and Site B (Effluent 3). These samples were collected as part of the routine monitoring programme of the Clyde River Purification Board (since subsumed as part of the Scottish Environment Protection Agency). Each sample was tested for toxicity using a variety of ecotoxicological methods including the CCT, algal growth inhibition toxicity test (AGITT), oyster embryo-larval toxicity (OEL) test and Microtox. The two algal bioassays, the CCT and AGITT, indicated the same ranking of effluent toxicity, in descending order 2, l, 3. The OEL test was found to be the most sensitive method and Microtox the least sensitive of the tests used. The CCT was found to be easy to run and operate on a day-to-day basis.
  • 机译 加拿大纽芬兰东海岸外海浮游动物中的多氯联苯和其他有机氯化合物
    摘要:Marine zooplankton samples collected in 1993 and 1994 at 25 stations along the east coast of Newfoundland and Labrador were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and persistent organochlorine (OC) compounds. Concentrations of these compounds were low ( < 1 ng/g wet weight). A few tnchloro-, tetrachloro- and pentachlorobiphenyl congeners were detected in zooplankton. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-hexachlorocyclohexane (αHCH) and some components of technical chlordane were also detected in the samples. Dichloro- dichlorophenylethylene (DDE) and Dichlorodiphenyltnchloroethane (DDT) were consistently present in zooplankton at approximately equal concentrations. Analysis of variance with data calculated on either a wet weight or a lipid-normalized basis indicated that there were no significant differences in contaminant concentrations that could be attributed to sampling year or to the towing methods used to collect samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) of analytical data indicated that there were no spatial trends evident in either the concentrations or patterns of contamination. The patterns of PCB and OC contamination are consistent with the patterns previously reported in zooplankton from the Arctic. The concentrations of trace contaminants reported in this study are well below the concentrations reported for North Atlantic zooplankton sampled in the 1970s.
  • 机译 东京湾沿岸水域的一氧化二氮排放量
    摘要:The distribution, source and atmospheric flux of nitrous oxide (N_2O) in seawater in Tokyo Bay were investigated from May to October 1994 to evaluate this area as an N_2O source to the atmosphere. N_2O was measured from seawater at 23 sampling stations (n = 178). Nitrate (NO_3), nitrinte (NO_2), ammonium (N H_4 - ), oxygen (O_2), water temperature and salinity were also determined. N_2O was supersaturated in all surface seawater, the surface N_2O saturation ranged from 116 to 1630/100. Both the high concentration of surface N_2O in the low salinity region and absence of significant spatial deviation in the distribution of N_2O with season suggested that the main source of N_2O was input of fresh water, discharge of treated sewage waters containing N_2O in the bay area is probably the main source of the observed high concentrations of N_2O in seawater there.
  • 机译 1995年来自新斯科舍省黑貂岛的灰色海豹(Halichoerus grypus)中的多氯代二苯并-对-二恶英和呋喃以及非邻氯和单邻氯取代的多氯联苯。
    摘要:Six mother-pup pairs of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were sampled on Sable Island, Nova Scotia (NS), in January 1995. Blubber samples from mothers and pups, and blood and milk samples from mothers were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and for non-oriho and mono-oriho chlorobiphenyls (NO- and MO-CBs). Total PCDD and PCDF concentrations were each below 20 pg/g lipid in blubber samples; these are among the lowest concentrations recorded in seals, and indicate little contamination by these compounds. Total NO-CB concentrations in blubber were in the low ng/g lipid range. Concentrations of MO-CB ranged from a few pg/g hpid to several hundred ng/g lipid in blubber, total NO- and MO-CB congeners measured were in the low μg/g lipid range. PCDD/Fs were detected only sporadically in blood samples but were measurable in milk samples. The trans- fer efficiency of CB congeners between maternal and pup blubber lipid was inversely correlated with lipid solubility (as indicated by in K_o/w) and this selectivity of transfer appeared to occur partly at the stage of digestion of milk by the pup.
  • 机译 蛤Ven中的三丁基锡的吸收和消除
    摘要:This paper considers the use of Venerupis decussata as a bioindicator of tributyltin (TBT) exposure using kinetic approaches. Clams, V. decussata, were exposed in a daily renewal protocol to different TBTCI concentrations: 0.004, 0.0814, 0.242, 0.740 and 2.47 pg L~-1. The time course of accumulation in the whole soft tissues was determined for a maximum expo- sure period of 60 days. In 2.47 μ g L~-1 a steady state was reached within 30 days and in lower exposure concentrations within 40 days. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) for TBT in clams ranged between 10 000 and 40 000. TBT data during the accumulation experiments were fitted to the one-order kinetic model and kinetic parameters, uptake and depuration rate constants, were calculated. Depuration was studied in a flow through system for a period of 100 days. TBT data during the depuration experiments were fitted to both one-compartment and two- compartment models. Using a one-compartment model, half-life values for TBT were calculated and ranged between 11 and 36 days, increasing for lower concentrations.
  • 机译 城市结构是否会影响潮下表生生物的局部丰度和多样性?澳大利亚悉尼港的案例研究
    摘要:In an age when human modification of natural substrata is increasingly cited as an agent of population decline and extinction, understanding the role of artificial surfaces as surrogate habitats for natural surfaces is critical. It has been predicted that the addition of new habitats to an area can lead to increases in species abundance and diversity. We tested this hypothesis by contrasting assemblages of subtidal epibiota on natural reef and six common urban surfaces in Sydney Harbour, Australia. All surfaces were in shallow water and consisted of rocky reef, sandstone (brick) retaining walls, fibreglass and concrete pontoons, concrete pilings and wooden pilings with bark and stripped of bark. Assemblages of epibiota on sandstone surfaces (natural rocky reefs and sandstone retaining walls) differed from non-sandstone sur- faces.
  • 机译 海洋硬骨鱼类的胆碱酯酶:酶学表征和在监测神经毒性污染中的潜在用途
    摘要:Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is well estabhshed as a biomarker of exposure to organo- phosphate compounds in freshwater fish. By constrast, only a few studies on the enzymology and responsiveness of AChE are available for marine species. In this study, we report char- actenstics of cholinesterases from brain and muscle tissue of three marine teleosts, Limanda limanda, Platichthys fiesus and Serranus cahrilla, to provide basal information for environ- mental monitoring in coastal and marine areas. In brain, cholinesterase activity was exclu- sively comprised of AChE. In contrast, both butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and AChE were present in axial muscle. The fish BChEs displayed atypical substrate and inhibitor specificities in that they cleaved acetyl-6-(methyl)thiocholine and were sensitive to BW284C51. Bimole- cular inhibition constants, Ki, of BChE for the organophosphates paraoxon and dichlorvos were more than three orders of magnitude greater than the respective Ki values of AChEs. This reflects a much higher sensitivity of BChE to the organophosphates than AChE. Neither AChE from muscle and brain within one species, respectively, nor corresponding cholines- terases from different species differed significantly in their Ki values. The presence of two cholinesterases of differential sensitivity in the same tissue is potentially useful in monitoring.
  • 机译 在人工改造的海湾中对浑浊的动物性反应(西班牙毕尔巴鄂)
    摘要:The relationship between rocky shore faunal assemblages and measured environmental variables in a small bay (Bilbao, Spain) affected by large anthropogenic interferences were examined using multivariate statistical techniques (CANOCO, PRIMER). Redundancy ana- lysis (RDA), with forward selection of environmental variables and associated Monte Carlo permutation tests, suggested that total suspension solids (TSSs) and salinity (Sals) at the water surface made significant ( < 0.05) contributions to explaining the variation in the investigated faunal assemblages. Alternatively, the BIO-ENV analysis selected a subset of three environ- mental variables, related to turbidity, as the best explanatory variables. A constrained RDA with TSSs as the only explanatory variable revealed that turbidity was a strong variable, and accounted for a statistically significant proportion of the variance in the faunal data set. Further analyses of faunal data using a smaller subset of 14 top dominant taxa produced spatial patterns as clearly as the analysis with the full species data set (63 species). This indi- cated that nearly 75/100 of the taxonomic information could be deemed redundant for the purposes of this study. In conclusion, the weight of evidence suggests that turbidity, mainly from estuarine runoff, is causing a severe stress to the hard-bottom faunal assemblages.
  • 机译 对河口沉积物中微量元素通量的生物地球化学控制:季节和短期缺氧的影响
    摘要:A long-term (162-day) study of fluxes of trace elements (Mn, As, Cu, Cd) was conducted with intact sediment cores collected from Baltimore Harbor, MD. Under hypoxic conditions large amounts of Mn initially fluxed out of the sediment, however, the rate of Mn flux diminished substantially over time. No Mn flux was seen under oxic conditions. After an initial 'pulse', As flux held steady through the hypoxic period. Under oxic conditions, As flux was very low initially and increased near the end of the experiment, with greater fluxes from formerly hypoxic sediments. Initially, fluxes of Cu and Cd were stimulated by hypoxic conditions, however, after a few days, flux of either was completely inhibited. Fluxes of both Cu and Cd occurred under oxic conditions and after the conclusions of hypoxic periods. At the average flux rates measured under oxic conditions, benthic fluxes of Cu and Cd were com- parable to point sources, and storm-water runoff inputs to Baltimore Harbor, and sig- nificantly greater than atmospheric inputs. Benthic fluxes of As were estimated to be less than storm-water runoff, but considerably higher than point sources or other inputs.
  • 机译 利用稳定和发育中的盐沼中的沉积物核来重建英国默西河口的历史污染剖面
    摘要:Depth-profiled sediment cores from two marshes in the Mersey Estuary were analysed for concentrations of 137~Cs, 238pu, 239,240Pu, 241~Am, As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn. Mersey sediments contain three diagnostic and persistent chemical species arising from either a unique, or a dominant, source 137~Cs, Hg and DDT. Dating of features in these cores has been completed using up to four benchmark events identifiable from these chemical species the initial expansion of the chemical industry, commencement of DDT manufacture, initial appearance of radionuclides from a reprocessing site in NW England, and the introduction of new technology to reduce mercury discharges. The sediment pollutant profiles depend on the rate of sediment accumulation but clearly record the histoncal increase in discharges of metals to the environment between the mid- 19th and 20th centuries. They also reflect recent regulatory and technological efforts to minimise estuarine contamination and the discontinuation of specific manufacturing and refining processes.
  • 机译 夏威夷沿海水质:缓冲区和稀释的重要性
    摘要:A study of the relationship between point and nonpoint source fleshwater discharges and marine water quality were studied during a period of I year in Mamala Bay, a coastal indentation on the south shore of the island of Oahu. Hawaiian Islands. Despite the fact that 100- 300 x 10~6 m~3 year~-1 of land runoff/groundwater seepagte and 150 x 10~6 year~-1 of treated sewage effluent enter Mamala Bay and its tributaries, coastal water quality as judged by stand- ard chemical and physical parameters is high at virtually all locations in the bay. The explanation for the high water quality reflects several important factors. First, much of the nonpoint source discharge enters either estuaries or harbors, which function as buffer zones by trapping some of the sediment and nutrients that would otherwise enter the coastal ocean. Second. the principal point source discharges are located in water sufficiently deep that their wastewater plumes are trapped below the surface most of the time. When the plumes surface they are sufficiently diluted that their impact on parameters, such as nutrient concentrations, is unde- tectable. Third. the coastal current system is greatly diluted by exchange with the offshore ocean. Based on a simple box model, the degree of mixing with the offshore ocean is roughly 40 times the rate of input of fresh water from point and nonpoint sources. The offshore waste- water outfalls have no discernible effect on water quality at any recreational beach along the shoreline. The principal impact on water quality at the recreational beaches comes from non- point so urce discharges, and with the exception of one beach located directly adjacent to a stream mouth, that impact is on the composition rather than the concentration of the plank- ton. There is a systematic shift from a chlorophyte- to a diatom-dominated phytoplankton community due to the high silicate concentration in groundwater and land runoff, and there is a systematic increase in the δ~15 N of suspended particles due to the high δ~15N of the biologically available nitrogen in groundwater seepage.
  • 机译 南极和北极大型藻类中I和II期脱毒酶的活性
    摘要:Presented data demonstrate the existence of various phase I and phase II detoxication enzymes in nine species of Antarctic and Arctic macroalgae cultivated under laboratory conditions. The different enzyme activities were widely distributed in the tested Chlorophyta. Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Concerning the cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase system, it was possible to determine several activities for fatty acid substrates such as lauric acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid and furthermore for 3-chlorobiphenyl, a xenobiotic substrate. The conversion of the 3-chlorobiphenyl to a monohydroxymonochlorobiphenyl was established using gas chrmatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
  • 机译 细胞色素P450介导的酶活性和竖琴海豹(Phoca groenlandica)中多氯联苯的积累
    摘要:The presence and activities of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms in Barents Sea harp seals (n= 13) were studied using catalytic activities, selective inhibitors, and western blots. In addition the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden was measured in both the hubber and the food of the seals. The CYP activities and CYP isoforms present were related to the blubber PCB load and the relative presence of each PCB congener in seals relative to their food (metabolic index). The CYP activities measured were 2-7 times higher than in ringed and harp seals from other studies, suggesting induction due to contaminant exposure. However, PCB burdens were surprisingly low and were not related to the CYP activities. Probably these high activities were due to exposure to other contaminants or due to the diet consisting mainly of crustaceans, which are rich in carotenes. Carotenes have been shown to be potent CYP inducers in several laboratory animals. The CYP studies indicated the presence of CYPIA, -2B and -3A isoforms. A decrease in the relative presence of a number of PCB congeners in seal blubber relative to their food, supposed to be due to CYP-mediated metabolism, corresponded with the metabolic capabilities of the CYP isoforms found.
  • 机译 模拟地中海泻湖中的养分和浮游植物的年度循环(希腊Gialova)
    摘要:Nutrient dynamics for phosphate. nitrate, ammonium and silicate have been simulated with the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model in a Mediterranean lagoon. This generic model designed for the open sea can be usefully applied also to coastal lagoon ecosystems with minimum modifications. The annual cycles of the nutrients phosphate and silicate compare quite well with the observed ranges of variability. This does not hold for ammonium and nitrate where the increased concentrations could be attributed to external inputs from the land. Nutrient budgets calculated from the model results indicate some competition between phytoplankton and bacteria for nutrients, a common characteristic of lagoons. To further develop the model, an adaptation of the phytoplankton submodel to represent benthic pri- mary production, as well as the modification of the benthic nutrient model to cope with anoxic events, are suggested.
  • 机译 与铬酸铜处理过的木板相关的消费者中金属的积累
    摘要:Metals leached from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, taken up by epibiota and trophically transferred to their motile consumers or taken up directly by the consumers, were measured in caged organisms exposed to treated and untreated wood panels for 3 months. Epibiota on treated panels had more copper and arsenic than epibiota on untreated panels, and amphipods living on the former had elevated copper. However, metal concentrations in grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and two teleost fish, the naked goby (Gohiosoma bosci ) and mum- michog (Fundulus heteroclitus), were unaffected by CCA-treated wood exposure. In addition, there was no evidence of biomagnification in the consumers other than the amphipods. Thus, trophic transfer was not demonstrated to the consumers, suggesting that the treated wood was not presenting a hazard to higher trophic levels. Fish may have more efficient mechanisms for regulating metal levels in their tissues.
  • 机译 鱼和普通的肝细胞色素P450 IA和7-乙氧基间苯二酚O-二烯化酶诱导反应是土耳其伊兹密尔湾有毒有机污染的指标
    摘要:In this study, the degree of induction of cytochrome P4501A-associated 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and immunochemical detection of cytochrome P450lA in leaping mullet (Liza saliens) and common sole (Solea vulgaris) were used as biomarker for assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) or/and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) type organic pollutants along the lzmir Bay on the Aegean Sea coast, Turkey. Fish were captured in May 1995 and February and June 1996. Mullet caught from Pasaport, a highly urbanized and industrial section of the Bay, had approximately 62 times more EROD activity than the feral fish sampled from an uncontaminated site in the Outer Bay.
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