摘要：Study objectives-To study the influence of the proxy respondent on health inter- view surveys in children. Design-Cross sectional study. Setting-Children under the age of 15 Years drawn from the general population Of Catalonia, Spin.
摘要：Objective-The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence on preterm delivery of changes in putative genetic and envi- ronmental risk factors between two con- secutive births. Low social status is a suspected risk indicator of preterm deliv- ery, but the impact of social mobility has not been studied before. Participants-The study uses national co- Horts in which women act as their own Controls. Subjects were identified by Means of registries: 10 455 women who Gave birth to a preterm child and had a Subsequent live birth between 1980 and 1992 and 9849 women who gave birth to a child after 37 completed weeks of gestation and had a subsequent live born child in the same time period formed the cohorts.
摘要：Study objective-To examine the relation between experimental and non- experimental study design in vaccinology. Design-Assessment of each study de- Sign's capability of testing four aspects of Vaccine performance, namely immuno- genicity (the capacity to stimulate the Immune system), duration of immunity Conferred, incidence and seriousness of Side effects, and number of infections pre- Vented by vaccination.
摘要：Study objective-to investigate whether neighbourhood characteristics are related to dietary patterns independently of indi- vidual level variables. Design-A cross sectional analysis of the Relation between neighbourhood median Household income and food and nutrient Intakes, before and after adjustment for individual level variables.
摘要：Objective-The disability adjusted life year (DALY) and the healthy life year (HeaLY) are both composite indicators of disease burden in a population, which combine healthy life lost from mortality and morbidity. The two formulations deal with the onset and course of a disease dif- ferently. The purpose of this paper is to compare the DALY and HeaLY formula- tions as to differences in apparent impact when a disease is not in an epidemiologi- cal steady state and to explore the impli- cations of the differing results.
摘要：Study objectives-To examine the cognitive function in a large, ongoing cohort study of older men, and to identify associations with social and lifestyle factors. Design-A cross sectional study of cogni- tive function was conducted within the Caerphilly Prospective Study of Heart Disease and stroke.
摘要：Study objective-To determine high cost factors to help managers and clinicians to analyse the reasons of adverse costs and provide indications for financial negotia- tion. design-To locate high cost or long stay Patients, the analysis was designed on the basis of a mixture of Weibull distributions. In this new model, the proportion of high Cost patients was expressed according to The multinomial logistic regression, per- mitting the determination of high cost Factors.
摘要：Objectives-To introduce the UK SF36 Version II (SF36-II), and to (a) gain popu- lation norms for the UK SF36-II in a large Community sample as well as to explore The instrument's internal consistency reli- Ability and construct validity, and (b) to Derive the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) algorithms for the UK SF36-II. Design-Postal survey using a question- naire booklet, containing the SF-36-II and questions on demographics and long term illness.
摘要：Study objective-To determine the influ- ence of continued drug use and its percep- tion by prescribing physicians on access to antiretroviral treatment among French HIV infected injection drug users (IDUs). Design-Cross sectional including enrol- ment data (October 1995-1995) of the Cohort study MANIF 2000. Access to Treatment is compared in three groups: Former IDUs (n=68) and active IDUs Whether or not this behaviour remains Undetected (n=38) or detected (n=17) by Physicians.
摘要：Background-It is generally acknowledged that conventional estimates of the potential number of life years to be gained by elimi- nation of causes of death are too generous. This is because these estimates fail to take Into account the fact that those who are Saved from the cause are likely to have one Or more other conditions ("competing" Causes of death), which may increase their Risks of dying. It is unknown to what extent This introduces bias in comparisons of life Years to be gained between underlying causes of death. The purpose of the study Was to assess this bias.
摘要：Study objectives-Several recent reports show a negative association between asthma and family size or birth order, but this association was not detected in data collected between 10 and 30 years ago. This study compared the association be- tween sibship size and asthma in three Surveys using the same methodology in 1977, 1985/86, and 1993/94. Design-Cross sectional comparison of The 1977, 1985/86, and 1993/94 surveys.
摘要：Background-The HIV/AIDS epidemic has caused an excess of tuberculosis cases in Spain an in other countries, but its impact on tuberculosis infection is less well understood. This study presents a massive screening undertaken to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection in a cohort of primary school entrants. The evolution of the risk of infection is studied by comparison with previous data in the same population.
摘要：Objective-To analyse differences in health by educational level in Spanish adults by comparing the health dimen- sions of the SF-36 Heath Survey. Design-Data were taken from the Na- Tional Survey on Drug Use carried out in February 1996. The information was col- lected by home personal interview. In Addition to measuring the sue of legal and Illegal drugs and their associated health Risks, the health status of the Spanish Population was analysed using the Span- Ish version of the SF-36 Health Survey.
摘要：Setting-As par of the WHO-MONICA study, acute coronary events have been registered from 1983 until 1992 in the general population aged 25-69 years in two Belgian cities-Ghent in the northern Dutch speaking part of Belgium and Charleroi in the southern French speak- Ing part. Registration of events was done According to an international standard Protocol. Objective-to study trends in total, fatal And non-fatal event rates and trends in Case fatality rates in these two cities.
摘要：Study objective-To assess the relative importance of heritable characteristics and lifestyle in the development of "ma- ternal obesity" after pregnancy. Setting-South east London, in the homes Of mothers who had delivered their babies At either Guy's Lewisham or St Thomas's Hospitals.
摘要：Study objective-to assess the benefit of planned specialist follow up appointments after elective inpatient surgery. Design-This was a controlled trial, using Repeated alternate allocation of time peri- ods to the two study groups. Group 1: Planned outpatient follow up 6-12 weeks after surgery. Group 2: No planned follow up: additional written information for patients and general practitioners.
摘要：Objective-To develop a short instrument, called DISCERN, which will enable pa- tients and information providers to judge the quality of written information about treatment choices. DISCERN will also facilitate the production of new, high quality, evidence-based consumer health information. Design-An expert panel, representing a Range of expertise in consumer health Information, generated criteria from a Random sample of information for three Medial conditions with varying degrees Of evidence: myocardial infarction, en- dometriosis, and chronic fatigue syn- drome. A draft instrument, based on this Analysis, was tested by the panel on a ran- Dom sample of new material for the same Three conditions. The panel re-drafted the Instrument to take account of the results Of the test. The DISCERN instrument was finally tested by a national sample of 15 Information providers and 13 self help Group members on a random sample of Leaflets from 19 major national self help Organisations. Participants also com- Pleted an 8 item questionnaire concerning The face and content validity of the instru- ment.
摘要：Study objective-To examine whether cognitive and psychosocial factors predict mortality once physical health is control- led. Design-A prospective study of commu- nity dwelling elderly. Mortality was as- sessed over a period of 3-4 years after the baseline assessment of predictors. The Data were analyzed using the Cox propor- tional hazards model.
摘要：Objective-To validate a range of dietary assessment instruments in general prac- tice. Methods-Using a randomised block de- Sign, brief assessment instruments and More complex conventional dietary as- sessment tools were compared with an Accepted "relative" standard-A seven day Weighted dietary record. The standard was Checked using biomarkers, and by per- Forming test-retest reliability in addi- Tional subjects (n=29).
摘要：Study objective-To analyse the relative risk (RR) of mortality related to social factors independent of health status and occupational category. Setting-Subjects were Swiss men and Women aged 40-65 years. Design-a random sample of 820 people Living in Geneva were followed up pro- spectively between 1984 and 1996. The Social, occupational, and health data were Gathered at subjects' homes in 1984 using a standardised questionnaire. Infor- mation about deaths and the correspond- ing dates were obtained from updated files Of the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics (OFS). Risk of mortality was examined according to a Cox model.