摘要：Early life stags of Clarias gariepinus were found to be less sensitive to acute dieldrin toxicity than were those of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus; 96-h LC_(50) values for 37-day-old fry were 11.7 and 4.95 ug liter~(-1), respectively. The growth of C. gariepinus fry was unaffected by 30 days of exposure to 2.4 ug liter~(-1) dieldrin under static conditions with water renewal every 96 h, whereas growth of O. niloticus fry was significantly reduced. Adult C.gariepinus exposed to dieldrin for 30 days, with water changes every 96 h, rapidly absorbed dieldrin from aqueous solution.
摘要：Early anthropogenic metalliferous activity on the island of Cyprus is outlined. Samples of Corsican pines, obtained from both a largely uncontaminated (control) and a metallifierous part of the Mount Olympus area of Cyprus, were analyzed by means of X-ray microanalysis. A total of 21 ions were recorded from the samples; in the contaminated site manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, silver, and tin were bioaccumulated by the needles, while copper, zinc, and gold were bioaccumulated by the stems. Some elements, e.g., copper, were more positively bioaccumulated than others. Some implications of the findings are discussed.
摘要：The potential of a secondary-treated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (BKPME) and resin acids (RAs) to induce liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) in adult Anguilla anguilla L. was investigated in laboratory and field experiments. Hepatic health was assessed by measurement of liver alanine transaminase (ALT). One single intraperitoneal injection of abietic acid (AA) or dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), at the same molar dose (14.7 umol/kg), was given and fish were examined 3 days later.
摘要：Biochemical indices were investigated for their potential use as variables of sublethal toxicity in Daphnia (cholinesterase) and Chironomus (cholinesterase and biotransformation enzymes). Parathion, dichlorvos, and aldicarb caused dose-related inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) in 24-h bioassays with both species. Ratios of Daphnia and Chironomus ChE IC_(50) values to corresponding immotility EC_(50) values derived from the same experiment covered the range 0.26 to 1.2. Estimates of the ChE inhibition caused by the immotility EC_(50) were in the range 53-99/100 below control activity.
摘要：The accumulation kinetics in the freshwater mollusk Corbicula fluminea were measured for sediment-associated selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), namely, anthrancene (Ant), phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr), and benzo[α]pyrene (BaP). The desorption from sediment to water was not noly related to water solubility, but also depended on structural and physicochemical properties fo PAHs (molecular weight, molecular area, octanol/water partition coefficient K_(ow)). Uptake of PAHs by mollusks was very fast in the first 24 h and maximum for low-molecular-weight compounds.
摘要：The work deals with the toxicity of hecavalent and trivalent chromium to activated sludge. Cr(VI) was added as K_2Cr_2O_7, adn Cr(III) as Cr_2(SO_4)_3. Toxicity is expressed as the inhibition of respiratory activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge. Respiration was measured by two methods, by means of an oximeter with an oxygen electrode and by means of a manometric apparatus permitting continuous observation of biological oxygen demand (BOD). The equation fo the normal distribution function was used to construct inhibition curves and to calculate effective concentration (EC_(50)).
摘要：The effect of different concentrations (5, 10, and 20 ppm) of phenol on the carp erythrocyte plasma membrane was examined following exposures of 48 and 96 h. The results indicated that the high concentrations of pheol pollutant led to an increase in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and eliminated phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidic acid (PA). The data also revealed that arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) was presetn in the greatest amounts; its quantity in both low and high doses increased throughout the experimental period.
摘要：Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, is a physioclogical and irreversible in tissue homeostasis that leads to DNA fragmentation of multiples of 180-200 bp. Because apoptosis can be initiated not only by physiological stimuli but also by various chemcial substances, the present paper investigates the suitability of apoptosis as a biomarker for biological effect monitoring in the marine environmet. Aquarium experiments with dab (Limanda limanda) were carried out to examine the effects of exposure to cadmium, PCB 118, and PCB 77 (each 1 mg/kg fish wt) on apoptosis in dab liver.
摘要：The reliance on earthwoms as test organisms in risk assessment studies of polluted environments raises the question whether they can evolve resistance, e.g., by adaptation to sepcific toxicants. Protection criteria may be biased if sensitivity data from adapted populations are used. Increased resistance to the heavy metal cadmium has not yet been determined for terrestrial Oligochaeta. Eisenia fetida was exposed to a sublethal conentration of cadmium sulfate for more than 10 generations.
摘要：To evaluate the extent of organochlorine pollution in the Sierra Nevada ecosystem, reidues of certain organochlorines in lake trout and Kokanee fish from Lake Tahoe, an alpine lake located between the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range and the Carson Range of California and Nevada, were analyzed. Multiresidue analysis is fish muscle revealed wet weigth concetnrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the range 18 to 430 ppb and of p, p'-DDE in the range 5 to 85 ppb in the two fish species studied.
摘要：Maturing lake trout (Salmo trutta lacustris) of both sexes were exposed to 10 and 20 ug/liter phytosterols, mainly β-sitos-terol, for 4.5 months prior to spawning. Eggs from preexposed females were artificially fertilized with milt from preexposed males in clean water, whereupon the eggs were incubated in clean water until hatching. Yolk sac fry were followed until swim-up, and mortality as well as deformities were recorded. The physiological status of the parent fish was documented, as was the occurrence of phytosterols in bile liquid and gonads.
摘要：Terrestrial epiphytic algae were used to absorb atmospheric pollutants and this material was then fed to larave of a bagmoth to assess the toxicological effects of the pollutants. Samples of algae were amended with pesticides to simulate agricultural spray drift and with pesticides to simulate road traffic emissions. Larval mortality, imobilization, and feeding were used as the toxicological endpoints. Feeding was the most sensitive of these, but clear dose-response relationships were observed with all three endpoints. The effects of atmospheric polution on an impacted environment were then investigated using these organisms.
摘要：Enzymes of phase I and phase II of the xenobiotic detoxication pathway (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, peroxidases, microsomal and soluble glutathione-S-transferases) were measrued in roots, stems, and leaves of Phragmites australis, revealing different enzyme activities in these parts. Highest enzyme activities were measured in the root followed by the leaf. Enzyme acivities dtected in the stem were low compared with thse in the root and leaf. The high detoxication capacity of the root and the leaf might be due to very high exposure to xenobiotics and to the high levels of metabolism in these cormus parts. The function of the stem of Phragmites is mainly transportation, so a high detoxication level is not useful, as indicated by the lwo enzyme activities.
摘要：In this study a comparison was made of the results obtained in Dpahnia magna chronic bioassays after first-brood release and after 21 days of exposure, using inhibition of normal reproduction and growth as effect criteria and EC_(10), EC_(20), EC_(50), noobserved-effect concentration (NOEC), and lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) as statistical parameters. Test substances were sodium bromide (NaBr), 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), cadmium, and parathion.
摘要：Creosote, a globally used wood preservative, is a complex mixture consisting primarily of aromatic organic compounds (ACs). Creosote-derived ACs can persits for decades in aquatic sediments. Natural and anthroupogenic activities may result in dissolution and resuspension of sediment-associated ACs. These processes were mimicked by generating a water-soluble fraction (WSF) from creosote-contaminated sediment (ERS) collected from a polluted site. The epibenthic mysid Mysidopsis bahia was exposed to five sublethal concentrations of WSF for 7 days.
摘要：Activated sludge is a rich source of nitrogenous matter and has been recommendend as cheap supplement in animal feed. It has been incorportated into cattle and poultry feed. It is well known that sewage of purely domestic origin is also contaminated with heavy metals, pesticides, and other organic pollutants. A study was undertaken to determine the toxic effects of heavy metal-contaminated domestic sewage sludge on young male Wistar rats by supplementing dehydrated activated sludge in their diet at concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20/100.
摘要：Heavy metal content of agriculatural toposils has been experimentally determiend at 14 areas in the German Leipzig-Halle-Bitterfeld region covering ca. 3700 km~2. For most of the locations and elements, the contamination levels are comparable to those of other agricultural sites in Germany and Europe. Application of a sequential extraction technique revealsed relatively low contamination levels inthe mobile fractions, whcih indicates a correspondingly low degree of bioavailability of the heavy metals under the current milieu conditions.
摘要：Transformation of phenol (~(14)C_6H_5OH) penetrating through the roots of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) sterile seedlings has been studied. Phwnol was coupled to low-molecular-weight peptides, producing phenol-peptide conjugates. Hydrolytic cleavage of the conjugates liberated initial labeled phenol and some unlabeled amino acids. Phenol-gultathione and phenol-homoglutathione were not found among the peptide conjugates. It is suggested that the conjugation is carried out via the hydroxyl group of phenol and functional groups of peptides.
摘要：The acute tocicities foa commercial dispersant (Corexit 9527) and four experimental dispersant formulations were evaluated using the 96-h mysid (Mydisopsis bahia) test and two rapid screeing tests, Microtox and the Mysid IQ Toxicity Test. During 96-h toxicity tests, survial observations were recorded at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h to document moretalities from short-term exposures more consistent with field exposure times and more apprximate to exposure times used in Microtox and the Mysid IQ Toxicity Test.
摘要：The author uses previously unpublished plant worker mortality data, which underlie the 1990 National Institute for Occupational Satety and Health (NIOSH) Report on Dioxin, to idnetify additional tissure/organ/system sites at which dioxin exposure causes or is assoicated with a reduction in mortality. These new observations in men include reductions in urinary organ cancers, including bladder cancers; multiple myeloma; respiratory diseases, including emphysema and pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases; total disease other than cancer; the total disease.